Entering the Christmas liturgy through sacred images

For centuries, Christians have represented the deepest mysteries of the Christian faith in prayerful art, a practice meant to help the faithful participate more fully in the sacred liturgy.

Although many new churches are not as covered in art as was common a few centuries ago, the fruitfulness of praying with religious images has not changed. Meditating on the mysteries of Christmas depicted in icons can help the Christian enter more deeply into this liturgical season.

“[An icon] is not something that necessarily needs a detailed explanation. Rather, it’s an image that is understood in the context of the liturgy,” said Father Ioan Gotia, DCJM, a bi-ritual (Byzantine and Latin) priest, artist and expert in Byzantine iconography. “Its role is not so much to tell the story of what happened as it is to help us become present in the mystery, so that we may not only remember but also partake in it.”

Father Gotia, who studied under artists such as Father Marko I. Rupnik, treasures his childhood, surrounded by the icons in his parents’ home. His mother’s artistic abilities led him to appreciate and develop his skills when he began writing icons at the age of 14.

The young artist would go on to obtain a doctorate from the Pontifical Oriental Institute in Rome with a concentration in Byzantine and Marian Iconography. He has painted numerous murals in Austria, Italy, the United States and Spain, where he currently resides.

“Every action of Jesus encompasses and embraces all of time. In Christmas we are able to be present in Bethlehem, in the mystery, accompanied by the liturgy,” he said.

The following pieces are representations of the Nativity done by Father Gotia, who explained the basic meaning of their symbols. One of these works is found in the rectory chapel of St. Mary’s parish in Littleton, Colo.

I. Gotia, DCJM. “The Nativity,” 2017. 

1. Jesus is wrapped in diapers but also in linen cloths, as the dead prior to burial. This indicates the beginning of Jesus’ mission to save man through his passion, a reality also expressed by the red cross in his halo.

2. The Virgin gives her son to Joseph, in his mission as foster father, in one icon and gives him to us in the other, inviting us to partake in the mystery.

3. St. Joseph looks at us in both icons, inviting us with his hand to draw near Jesus. He also places his hand on the shepherd’s shoulder, a representation of man, bringing him into the mystery.

4. All of creation offers the child Jesus something: Mary, her being; Joseph, his protection; the animals, their home; the shepherds their sheep and food; the star, its light…

5. The birds on the trees sing for Jesus, referencing Psalm 83: “Even the sparrow finds a home, and the swallow a nest for herself… at your altars, O Lord… Blessed are those who dwell in your house.” It is Christ who prepares for us a dwelling place.

I. Gotia, DCJM. “The adoration of the shepherds,” 2015. Rectory chapel, St. Mary’s Parish, Littleton, Colo.

6. The mountains and trees are shown green, as in the summer, even though Jesus was born in the cold months, to signify that his birth brings about the new creation.

7. Mary is always portrayed with three stars: on her head and on each shoulder, as a sign of the gift of her virginity before, during and after birth. It also indicates the child’s divine origin.

8. The angel adores the child with his hands covered, recalling the humeral veil used by priests and recognizing him as true God.

9. The stars are portrayed inside the cave to denote that where Jesus is, heaven is present. He is depicted as victor from the beginning: His light overcomes all darkness.

10. The child is laid on the straw because he came to be our nourishment. He was born in Bethlehem, which means “house of bread” in Hebrew.

11. Jesus enjoys our gifts, as simple as they may be, and awaits them with open arms. They are not so much material things but primarily ourselves.

 

COMING UP: Did Christians ban the Games? Tales, myths and other fun facts about the ancient Olympics

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The 2020 Summer Olympics began less than a week ago, and as is usually the case, there’s been enough stunning athleticism, shocking upsets and yes, even a little bit of drama on display to keep the water cooler chatter abuzz until at least the 2022 games.

At their best, the Olympic games bridge cultural divides and unite countries around the world as the greatest living athletes around the globe compete for the coveted gold medal in their respective events. There’s a spirit of global camaraderie that welcomely comes about during every Olympiad; whether watching the Games at home with the family or going to a local bar to cheer on your favorite country, the Olympics bring people together in a way that most other sporting events do not.

Another astounding thing about the Olympics is how they’ve endured over the millennia. Indeed, they provide a special glimpse into the history of the world and those common qualities of humanity that will never die; namely, the need for both unitive, universal community and friendly but fierce competition.

The first recorded Olympic games took place in 776 B.C., though some historians speculate that they could have began as early as the 10th century B.C. The games were held every four years in Olympia to honor the greek god Zeus as one of four Panhellenic festivals, this one coinciding with the second full moon following the summer solstice, usually at the end of July or early August. The Olympics became so significant that the term Olympiad was used to mark a year the games took place, and became a common unit of historical time measurement.

Now, the ancient world wasn’t exactly known for its amicability or even peacefulness, as indicated by the countless wars and power usurpations that took place throughout its history. However, Olympic festivals were marked by a truce among the Greeks called ekecheiria, which roughly means “holding of hands.” This ensured safe travels for athletes and spectators as they made their way to the festival and was a common basis for peace among the Greeks. That the Olympic games could get even the constantly feuding Greeks to lay down their arms and come together in a spirit of solidarity speaks to their significance in ancient history.

Early Olympic events included the footrace, wrestling, the long jump, the javelin throw, the discus throw and boxing. Of course, it’s nigh impossible to read about the ancient Olympics and not come across epic tales of chariot racing, an event which was briefly banned early on but was reinstated by the first century B.C. and drew the interest of several key Roman figures (more on that later).

By the fifth century B.C., athletes from all over the Greek-speaking world came to Olympia for the games. The footrace, also called the Stade or Stadion, was considered the most prestigious event, and is where the english word “stadium” is derived from. Stade was a unit of measurement in ancient Greece which modern historians say is the rough equivalent to 600 feet or 200 yards, though the actual length has been a subject of debate for many years. Either way, it represents the length which runners in the Stadion ran to prove themselves as the fastest sprinters in the ancient world.

Interestingly, very little record about the Olympics games during the time of Christ exists. History tells us that the Roman emperor Tiberius, who was emperor during Christ’s life, won the chariot races during the 194th Olympiad in 4 B.C. In 17 A.D., the popular Roman general Germanicus, who was Tiberius’ adopted son and the future father of the third Roman Emperor Caligula, won the chariot races in 17 A.D., presumably around the time Christ was a teenager.

About those chariot races: they were known to attract elite political figures, some of whom won based on true skill, and others who only wanted the appearance of winning to further exert their power and status. During the 211th Olympiad, Emperor Nero, known for his fierce persecution of Christians and rather narcissistic personality, forcibly moved the Olympic games set to take place in 65 A.D. to 67 A.D. so he could compete while on a tour of Greece. He participated in the chariot races (with six more horses than the other competitors), and declared himself the greatest Olympic victor of all time, though historical eyewitness accounts tell a different story. Nero actually nearly died after a severe wreck, but Nero being Nero, he was still declared the winner.

Thankfully, Nero’s title as an Olympic victor and the Olympiad he “won,” which did not adhere to the established chronology of the games, were subsequently stricken from the official Olympic records after his death.

The Olympics grew over the course of 1,200 years until 393 A.D., when Emperor Theodosius I banned all Pagan festivals from the Roman emperor after Christianity became adopted as the state religion. Popular culture and history has long maintained this story of Christianity being to blame for the halt of the Olympic games. However, in recent years, some historians have disputed this account, saying that it was not for religious reasons but rather economic reasons that the games ended when they did. In fact, even after Theodosius’ death, there are still records of Olympic games taking place up until the fifth century. As the administration of Roman Empire evolved, the Olympics could no longer be sponsored by civil funds and instead became sponsored more and more by rich elites of the time. Simply put, the games became too expensive, and no one wanted to pay for them anymore.

The Olympics did not make a return for 1,500 years, until the Athens Olympics in 1896. Over the last 125 years since their reinstatement, the Games have become an integral piece of modern culture and a remnant of ancient history that was revived to great avail. As the Olympics in Tokyo continue over the next week and athletes compete for the gold, the words of St. Paul in his first letter to the Corinthians serve as a pertinent reminder of how the spirit of an Olympian imitates closely that of a Christian:

“Do you not know that in a race all the runners run, but only one receives the prize? So run that you may obtain it. Every athlete exercises self-control in all things. They do it to receive a perishable wreath, but we an imperishable. So I do not run aimlessly; I do not box as one beating the air. But I discipline my body and keep it under control, lest after preaching to others I myself should be disqualified” (1 Cor 9:24-27).

So let the Games continue! And may the race be run not for a perishable prize, but an imperishable one.


Featured photo: Met Museum, Terracotta Panathenaic prize amphora (jar), ca. 510 B.C. Attributed to the Leagros Group.