The “mystery of evil”

In his Holy Thursday letter to priests, Pope John Paul II described clergy sexual abuse as an expression of the “mystery of evil” at work in the world. Some columnists scoffed that the Pope was evading the issue. In fact, he was cutting straight to the heart of the matter.

Unlike religions that fudge the problem of evil by describing it as an illusion or a negation, Christianity does not deny the reality of evil. The Catechism of the Catholic Church faces the problem squarely: “…why did God not create a world so perfect that no evil could exist in it? With infinite power, God could always create something better. But with infinite wisdom and goodness God freely willed to create a world ‘in a state of journeying’ toward its ultimate perfection” (310).

In other words, God created a world of freedom. In a world of freedom, things can and do go wrong. God’s answer to that hard truth was to enter the world, in the person of his Son, to redeem the world of its evil and restore creation to its true trajectory — the path that leads to eternal life within the light and love of the Trinity.

The mystery of evil remains. But the mystery of evil is transformed, in ways sometimes difficult to discern, by God’s saving acts in history. The Catechism again: “We firmly believe that God is master of the world and of its history. But the ways of providence are often unknown to us. Only at the end, when our partial knowledge ceases, when we see God ‘face to face’ [1 Corinthians 13.12], will we fully know the ways by which — even through the dramas of evil and sin — God has guided his creation to that definitive sabbath rest [cf. Genesis 2.2] for which he created heaven and earth” (314).

The Christian answer to evil, and to the fear that evil engenders, is the cross of Jesus Christ. There, the Son of God took all the evil and fear of history onto himself, offering them to God in a perfect act of obedience. God’s answer to that obedient act of radical, self-giving love was given on Easter Sunday, in the resurrection of Christ. Embracing the cross of Christ in baptism and being born again into his resurrection, we, too, are empowered to live beyond evil. Christians do not deny fear. Because of Christ, Christians can live beyond fear.

The omnipresent brutality and violent death of the mid-twentieth century led many European intellectuals to despair about the human future — to the conviction that life is absurd, a constant struggle for power in which the weak are ground into the dust by the unscrupulous and the strong. Ideas have consequences, and what the philosophers taught and the novelists wrote about eventually seeped into the general culture, leading to all sorts of dehumanizing behavior: the abuse of alcohol and drugs; sexual promiscuity; crass consumerism, in which “having more” is identified with “being more;” the manipulation of others for our pleasure or convenience. Pope John Paul II has sometimes described these behaviors as a “culture of death.”

The Christian answer to the culture of death is not optimism, but hope. Hope adds a further dimension to the Christian understanding of the mystery of evil: Christians believe that God, through his providence, will always bring good out of evil and meaning out of meaninglessness. Christian hope is a virtue, a virtue grounded in faith. Faith is the ultimate antidote to despair. And Christian faith is founded on Jesus Christ, who faces the evil of the world and conquers it through his cross and resurrection.

Faith in God’s victory over evil is a truth to be believed. The Catholic Church in America today must believe that God has given us this time of Calvary for a purpose. That purpose, I suggest, is the authentic reform of the Church according to the teaching of Vatican II as authoritatively interpreted by the pontificate of John Paul II.

What seems like a time of endless humiliation is, in truth, a time of purification — if all the people of the Church take the opportunity of this crisis to lead more intentionally, thoroughly Catholic lives.

COMING UP: Q&A: USCCB clarifies intent behind bishops’ Eucharist document

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Last week, the U.S. bishop concluded their annual Spring meeting, during which much about the Church in the U.S was discussed. In particular, the bishops voted to draft a document on the meaning of Eucharistic life in the Church, which was approved by an overwhelming majority.

Since then, speculation about the nature of the document has run rampant, the chief of which is that it was drafted specifically to instigate a policy aimed directly at Catholic politicians and public figures whose outward political expressions and policy enactment do not align with Church teaching.

The USCCB has issued a brief Q&A clarifying the intent of the document, and they have emphasized that “the question of whether or not to deny any individual or groups Holy Communion was not on the ballot.”

“The Eucharist is the source and summit of Christian life,” the USCCB said. “The importance of nurturing an ever
deeper understanding of the beauty and mystery of the Eucharist in our lives is not a new topic for the bishops. The document being drafted is not meant to be disciplinary in nature, nor is it targeted at any one individual or class of persons. It will include a section on the Church’s teaching on the responsibility of every Catholic, including bishops, to live in accordance with the truth, goodness and beauty of the Eucharist we celebrate.”

Below are a few commonly asked questions about last week’s meeting and the document on the Eucharist.

Why are the bishops doing this now?

For some time now, a major concern of the bishops has been the declining belief and understanding of the Eucharist among the Catholic faithful. This was a deep enough concern that the theme of the bishops’ strategic plan for 2021-2024 is Created Anew by the Body and Blood of Christ: Source of Our Healing and Hope. This important document on the Eucharist will serve as a foundation for the multi-year Eucharistic Revival Project, a major national effort to reignite Eucharistic faith in our country. It was clear from the intensity and passion expressed in the individual interventions made by the bishops during last week’s meeting that each bishop deeply loves the Eucharist.

Did the bishops vote to ban politicians from receiving Holy Communion?

No, this was not up for vote or debate. The bishops made no decision about barring anyone from receiving Holy Communion. Each Catholic — regardless of whether they hold public office or not — is called to continual conversion, and the U.S. bishops have repeatedly emphasized the obligation of all Catholics to support human life and dignity and other fundamental principles of Catholic moral and social teaching.

Are the bishops going to issue a national policy on withholding Communion from politicians?

No. There will be no national policy on withholding Communion from politicians. The intent is to present a clear understanding of the Church’s teachings to bring heightened awareness among the faithful of how the Eucharist can transform our lives and bring us closer to our creator and the life he wants for us.

Did the Vatican tell the bishops not to move forward on drafting the document?

No. The Holy See did encourage the bishops to engage in dialogue and broad consultation. Last week’s meeting was the first part of that process. It is important to note that collaboration and consultation among the bishops will be key in the drafting of this document.

Featured photo by Eric Mok on Unsplash