An interreligious dialogue, continued

A few days after Pope Benedict XVI’s lecture on faith and reason at Regensburg University, I was invited onto PBS’s “News Hour with Jim Lehrer” to discuss the ensuing controversy with Nihad Awad, executive director of the Council on American-Islamic Relations [CAIR]. During our exchange, Mr. Awad said that “the word ‘jihad’ does not mean holy war.” No one, he suggested, had ever been forced to become a Muslim. Equating “jihad” with “holy war,” he argued, was a notion “born within Christianity.”

Time constraints precluded my answering this directly, but on my return to my office in downtown Washington, I read an Associated Press story which began with this suggestive lead: “Al-Qaida in Iraq and its allies warned Pope Benedict XVI on Monday that he and the West were ‘doomed’ and proclaimed that the holy war would continue until Islam dominates the world.” The Al-Qaida statement was, shall we say, robust: “You infidels and despots, we will continue our jihad and never stop until God [permits] us to chop your necks and raise the… banner of monotheism, when God’s rule is established governing all people and nations…We will break up the cross, spill the liquor and impose head tax, [and] then the only thing acceptable [will be] a conversion or the sword.”

In other words, surrender to jihadist Islam or be murdered. As for the time-line involved here, Iraqi Al-Qaida took the broad view: “…jihad continues and should never stop until doomsday, when [Islam] ends victorious.”

I have neither the capacity nor the desire to engage in an exegetical exercise with Mr. Awad about the Qur’an and what it enjoins on Muslim believers. That can be done by specialists.  But, had time permitted, I would have said to Mr. Awad that, irrespective of his understanding of “jihad,” there are tens of thousands of jihadis throughout the world who take a drastically different view: who believe that the murder of innocents in the name of God can be pleasing to God — indeed can be commanded by God — if it advances the cause of Islam.

Christians have developed, over the past centuries, a deep theological critique of past Christian attempts to advance Christianity coercively. The deepest taproot of that critique can be found in something Joseph Ratzinger wrote, in 1987: “God wishes to be adored by people who are free.” The God of Abraham, Moses, and Jesus, who comes into history in search of man and who invites men and women into a dialogue of salvation, wishes a free choice for himself. Anything else, as the pope suggested at Regensburg, would be contrary to the nature of God, who creates the world (and us) through Logos, the Word, who is reason itself. God cannot command the unreasonable or the irrational; God cannot wish, much less command, the death of innocents in God’s name.

This is the kind of internal theological critique, based on Islamic warrants, that Mr. Awad and those who wish us to believe that “jihad” has been misunderstood, must foster in their own Islamic communities. It is not sufficient to deplore over-heated rhetoric in response to the pope’s Regensburg address (as CAIR) did; nor is it sufficient to say, as Mr. Amad said on the Lehrer program, that he and his organization condemn the murder of nuns and the burning of churches. More is needed — and what is needed are clear statements that these depredations are religiously offensive because they are the result of a distorted understanding of what God wishes and commands.

Unless Islamic leaders find the intellectual resources and the moral courage to condemn, on religious grounds, those who would murder in the name of God, more than a billion Muslims will be held hostage to the fanatics among their co-religionists. So will the rest of the world. It is long past time for Muslim leaders to stop quibbling over (or in some cases, dissembling about) the meaning of “jihad” and to condemn the jihadis who are turning the planet into a free-fire zone — and imagine that they’re doing God’s will in the process.

COMING UP: Did Christians ban the Games? Tales, myths and other fun facts about the ancient Olympics

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The 2020 Summer Olympics began less than a week ago, and as is usually the case, there’s been enough stunning athleticism, shocking upsets and yes, even a little bit of drama on display to keep the water cooler chatter abuzz until at least the 2022 games.

At their best, the Olympic games bridge cultural divides and unite countries around the world as the greatest living athletes around the globe compete for the coveted gold medal in their respective events. There’s a spirit of global camaraderie that welcomely comes about during every Olympiad; whether watching the Games at home with the family or going to a local bar to cheer on your favorite country, the Olympics bring people together in a way that most other sporting events do not.

Another astounding thing about the Olympics is how they’ve endured over the millennia. Indeed, they provide a special glimpse into the history of the world and those common qualities of humanity that will never die; namely, the need for both unitive, universal community and friendly but fierce competition.

The first recorded Olympic games took place in 776 B.C., though some historians speculate that they could have began as early as the 10th century B.C. The games were held every four years in Olympia to honor the greek god Zeus as one of four Panhellenic festivals, this one coinciding with the second full moon following the summer solstice, usually at the end of July or early August. The Olympics became so significant that the term Olympiad was used to mark a year the games took place, and became a common unit of historical time measurement.

Now, the ancient world wasn’t exactly known for its amicability or even peacefulness, as indicated by the countless wars and power usurpations that took place throughout its history. However, Olympic festivals were marked by a truce among the Greeks called ekecheiria, which roughly means “holding of hands.” This ensured safe travels for athletes and spectators as they made their way to the festival and was a common basis for peace among the Greeks. That the Olympic games could get even the constantly feuding Greeks to lay down their arms and come together in a spirit of solidarity speaks to their significance in ancient history.

Early Olympic events included the footrace, wrestling, the long jump, the javelin throw, the discus throw and boxing. Of course, it’s nigh impossible to read about the ancient Olympics and not come across epic tales of chariot racing, an event which was briefly banned early on but was reinstated by the first century B.C. and drew the interest of several key Roman figures (more on that later).

By the fifth century B.C., athletes from all over the Greek-speaking world came to Olympia for the games. The footrace, also called the Stade or Stadion, was considered the most prestigious event, and is where the english word “stadium” is derived from. Stade was a unit of measurement in ancient Greece which modern historians say is the rough equivalent to 600 feet or 200 yards, though the actual length has been a subject of debate for many years. Either way, it represents the length which runners in the Stadion ran to prove themselves as the fastest sprinters in the ancient world.

Interestingly, very little record about the Olympics games during the time of Christ exists. History tells us that the Roman emperor Tiberius, who was emperor during Christ’s life, won the chariot races during the 194th Olympiad in 4 B.C. In 17 A.D., the popular Roman general Germanicus, who was Tiberius’ adopted son and the future father of the third Roman Emperor Caligula, won the chariot races in 17 A.D., presumably around the time Christ was a teenager.

About those chariot races: they were known to attract elite political figures, some of whom won based on true skill, and others who only wanted the appearance of winning to further exert their power and status. During the 211th Olympiad, Emperor Nero, known for his fierce persecution of Christians and rather narcissistic personality, forcibly moved the Olympic games set to take place in 65 A.D. to 67 A.D. so he could compete while on a tour of Greece. He participated in the chariot races (with six more horses than the other competitors), and declared himself the greatest Olympic victor of all time, though historical eyewitness accounts tell a different story. Nero actually nearly died after a severe wreck, but Nero being Nero, he was still declared the winner.

Thankfully, Nero’s title as an Olympic victor and the Olympiad he “won,” which did not adhere to the established chronology of the games, were subsequently stricken from the official Olympic records after his death.

The Olympics grew over the course of 1,200 years until 393 A.D., when Emperor Theodosius I banned all Pagan festivals from the Roman emperor after Christianity became adopted as the state religion. Popular culture and history has long maintained this story of Christianity being to blame for the halt of the Olympic games. However, in recent years, some historians have disputed this account, saying that it was not for religious reasons but rather economic reasons that the games ended when they did. In fact, even after Theodosius’ death, there are still records of Olympic games taking place up until the fifth century. As the administration of Roman Empire evolved, the Olympics could no longer be sponsored by civil funds and instead became sponsored more and more by rich elites of the time. Simply put, the games became too expensive, and no one wanted to pay for them anymore.

The Olympics did not make a return for 1,500 years, until the Athens Olympics in 1896. Over the last 125 years since their reinstatement, the Games have become an integral piece of modern culture and a remnant of ancient history that was revived to great avail. As the Olympics in Tokyo continue over the next week and athletes compete for the gold, the words of St. Paul in his first letter to the Corinthians serve as a pertinent reminder of how the spirit of an Olympian imitates closely that of a Christian:

“Do you not know that in a race all the runners run, but only one receives the prize? So run that you may obtain it. Every athlete exercises self-control in all things. They do it to receive a perishable wreath, but we an imperishable. So I do not run aimlessly; I do not box as one beating the air. But I discipline my body and keep it under control, lest after preaching to others I myself should be disqualified” (1 Cor 9:24-27).

So let the Games continue! And may the race be run not for a perishable prize, but an imperishable one.


Featured photo: Met Museum, Terracotta Panathenaic prize amphora (jar), ca. 510 B.C. Attributed to the Leagros Group.