The future of the Church in China

My last review focused on Pope St. John Paul II—not only a great saint, but also a hero in the downfall of Communism in Eastern Europe. Both Weigel and Kengor emphasized that the accommodationist policies of the Vatican and the United States had not only failed to contain Communism, but actually enabled its expansion. The fight against Communism continues, but many would like to return to the accommodationism that John Paul II and President Reagan together overcame.

Currently, a debate rages about the attempt to reconcile the illegal underground Catholic Church and the Communist-sponsored Patriotic Catholic Association in China, which would place all bishops within the Communist controlled structure. In particular, the Vatican is negotiating a shared agreement with the government covering the appointment of bishops, which includes deposing some underground bishops. In light of this controversy, I’d like to reflect on the growth of Christianity in China and the possibility for greater inculturation of the faith there.

Rodney Stark and Xiuhua Wang, A Star in the East: The Rise of Christianity in China (Templeton, 2015).

Rodney Stark became famous for his study The Rise of Christianity (Harper, 1997), examining the social dynamics that led to the conversion of the Roman Empire. Working with a Chinese graduate student, Xiuhua Wang, he explores the dynamics behind the current “meteoric” rise of Christianity in China. The authors offer a short history of Christianity there from Matteo Ricci in the sixteenth century to the present. Catholicism by far was the largest Christian group in China until the rise of Communism. Since then, the authors detail how the government’s persecution of the hierarchy drastically reduced the Church’s ability to expand, while Protestant house churches exploded with growth.

Stark and Wang rely on two extensive, recent sociological studies for much of their conclusions. Overall, they describe how “tens of millions of Chinese have embraced Christianity—thousands more convert every day and more than forty new churches open every week (not counting new underground congregations). If this trend were to hold for even another decade, there would be more Christians in China than in any other nation in the world” (2). These converts are well educated, affluent, and even members of the Communist party (which technically forbids religious affiliation). They become Christian through “social networks,” which “are the basic mechanism through which conversion takes place” (50). The book is a short and easy read and will help you to get a quick understanding of the changing religious situation in China.

John C.H. Wu, Chinese Humanism and Christian Spirituality (Angelico, 2017).

Martin Scorsese’s movie, Silence (2016), adapting Shusaku Endo’s novel, made the claim that Asian culture was not compatible with Christianity. The Chinese convert to Catholicism, John C. H. Wu (d. 1986), would disagree emphatically. This remarkable man — student of ancient Chinese culture and Western law, translator of the New Testament, drafter of the Chinese (now Taiwanese) constitution, and teacher at Seton Hall — wrote a remarkable book about the inculturation of traditional Chinese wisdom with the Christian faith. Wu’s book covers the philosophy of Confucius and one of his disciples, Mencius, the mysticism of Taoism, and how these two conflicting movements (one moving toward the world and the other away from it) are fulfilled by the supernatural revelation of the Gospel.

Wu looks to St. Thérèse of Lisieux as a model for the mystical vision necessary to inculturate the faith in China: “For me as a Chinese, the most intriguing thing about Thérèse’s little way of spiritual childhood is that it is reminiscent, on the one hand, of the Confucian teaching of filial piety, and, on the other, of the Taoistic insight concerning the mystical significance of the little and the low, of the supple and the docile, of the feminine and the new-born” (97). He argues that Chinese culture offers fertile ground for the Gospel both with its teaching on the natural law and its yearning for the absolute. Wu knows the Chinese and Catholic traditions remarkably well and offers the reader great wisdom not only for the meeting of cultures, but also for navigating the challenges of modern, Western materialism.

With the growth of the Christian faith in China, it is not a time to bow before the Communist government, but to evangelize boldly, following in the footsteps of the many great Chinese martyrs and confessors.

COMING UP: Remembering John Paul the Great: Three new books

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When teaching college students a few years ago, I was shocked when I asked my students to tell me what they knew about Pope St. John Paul II. It wasn’t much. We went on to read George Weigel’s definitive biography of John Paul, Witness to Hope (Harper Perennial, 2004), and the students were blown away by the greatness and compelling life of the Pope. The class made me realize how quickly the memory of even monumental figures can fade away if we do not work deliberately to continue their legacy.

The first place to begin “getting to know” John Paul better would be Weigel’s biography, mentioned above, along with the sequel, The End and the Beginning: Pope John Paul II — The Victory of Freedom, the Last Years, the Legacy (Random House, 2010). In addition, I would recommend John Paul’s interview book, Crossing the Threshold of Hope (Knopf, 1995) and his trilogy of greatest encyclicals: Fides et Ratio, Evangelium Vitae, and Veritatis Splendor. The great Pope left us an enormous legacy of writings to explore, but especially relevant now are his “Letter to Families,” Familiaris Consortio (an exhortation on the family), and the Theology of the Body.

For those looking go deeper in their knowledge of John Paul, three new books can help us to remember and continue his great work for the renewal of Church and society.

George Weigel, Lessons in Hope: My Unexpected Life with St. John Paul II (Basic Books, 2017)

The final volume of a tryptic of the Pope, Weigel provides a memoir of his interactions with John Paul and an account of how he became his biographer. For those who love Witness to Hope, Weigel provides a fascinating account of how the book came about, tracing his work within the Vatican, Poland, and across the world. It narrates his own story as seminarian, lay theology student, writer, and his activity in politics, including writing speeches for a leader of the pro-life movement in Congress. His work caught John Paul’s attention, especially his book chronicling the Church’s role in the fall of Communism, The Final Revolution. Weigel gives testimony to the providence that prepared him to write John Paul’s biography and the friendship they developed in their common witness to the hope that comes from Christ.

Paul Kengor, The Pope and a President: John Paul II, Ronald Reagan, and the Extraordinary Untold Story of the 20th Century (ISI, 2017)

This book traces not only the remarkable working friendship of Regan and John Paul, but narrates the entire story of the struggle between European Communism and the Church. Surprisingly, the book’s common thread comes from Our Lady of Fatima, predicting Russia’s errors and uniting the faithful in prayer, as well as guiding not only John Paul but also Reagan. The two men recognized their providential role in what Reagan called the Divine Plan to end Communism in Europe. Portraits of many other key characters (on both sides) emerge: Stalin, Pope Pius XII, Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy, Bishop Fulton Sheen, and Gorbachev. Kengor presents extraordinary connections between the two figures: both were actors, deep men of prayer, survived assassination attempts only months apart, and played key leadership roles in the world. The book presents ground breaking research to make a compelling and undeniable case that the two great men worked together closely and succeeded in bringing freedom to Eastern Europe.

Pope St. John Paul II/Karol Wojtyła, In God’s Hands: The Spiritual Diaries 1962-2003 (Harper One, 2017)

This book gives us inside access to John Paul’s prayer life by presenting notes of his regular retreats from his time as a bishop through most of his papacy. It’s somewhat misnamed, as the book consists in his notebooks responding to the retreat material, not a normal diary. It reinforces what we know about the Pope: his strong focus on the Eucharist, his Marian spirituality of uniting our intentions to her fiat, and his concern as a bishop for the evangelization of his people. There are many gems, such as the following: “The most appropriate effects of the redemption in the human being are deeds that stem from it – deeds that through Mary are rooted in Christ, through one’s belong it Her, and that are simultaneously in accordance with Christ’s law, with His gospel” (10). The book will not disappoint those looking to enter more deeply into the spirituality of John Paul.