Christendom: old and new

Jared Staudt

We have come to think of the Church, the gathering of God’s faithful, in primarily spiritual terms. Throughout Christian history, however, faith implied social and even political obligations, which supplied a concrete expression for the Christian life. In the history of Christendom, one political organization prominently stands out: The Holy Roman Empire. We think of the Roman Empire as ending in 476, the date of the abdication of the last emperor in the West, although it continued with unbroken succession in the Byzantine East until 1453. In the year 800, Pope Leo III crowned a new emperor in the West, Charlemagne, to serve as the preeminent political ruler of Europe and the protector of the Church. Emperors were longstanding partners of the Pope, the one serving as political and the other as spiritual head of Christendom, though they often turned into rivals.

Peter Wilson provides a thorough account of the Empire, and a defense of its effectiveness as a political body, in his Heart of Europe: A History of the Holy Roman Empire (Belknap, 2020, paperback ed.). The extensive book (of just under 1,000 pages) does not provide a standard chronological account of figures and events, as it examines the overlooked heart of European culture through three sections focused on the ideal of the Empire, its unique sense of belonging that held it together, and finally its governance. The book’s organization provides an interesting and fresh approach, but it could have used a stronger narrative through coherent stories and summary of the key contributions of important figures (somewhat supplied by the timeline at the back of the book).The Empire’s key characteristics included its transnationality (centered in Germany and embracing at least parts of twelve other modern states); its decentralized authority, with governance dispersed among the Emperor, kings, electors (tasked with voting for new emperors), princes, prince-bishops, counts, knights, and free cities; and its cooperation with clergy, with bishops integrated into its civil rule.

As the nature of Christendom implies, the Church is not solely spiritual; it is a lived social and even cultural reality in the world, and the laity have a role in regulating Christian life in the world. The emperor was the chief representative of the laity and even held veto power within the papal conclave. As such, the emperor was the main defender of Christendom against external enemies and promoter of internal peace. The Holy Roman Empire experienced remarkable stability and purpose, uniting such a large expanse of territory and peoples through an understanding of the Empire’s role in the defense of local rights and of Christendom itself. It provided a sense of corporate identity and freedom by seeking consensus and peace, rooted in faith: “Freedom was expressed and celebrated collectively through communal gatherings and festivals, and by verbal and visual reminders of the community’s traditions and identity” (579).

Christendom is currently taking on new forms in the southern hemisphere. Despite having its original heartland in the Middle East, even 100 years ago it would have made sense to speak of Christianity as a religion centered in Europe and North America. No longer. There is a drastic shift in the proportion of Christian population to the southern hemisphere, ensuring Christian growth for the next 100 years and leading to new spiritual and social expressions of the faith. Philip Jenkins thoroughly explains this shift in The Next Christendom: The Coming of Global Christianity (Oxford, 2011, 3rd ed.). Although the Catholic Church should experience significant growth in Latin America, Africa (which will become the largest Christian continent), and Southeast Asia, much of the global growth comes from Pentecostal and independent groups. “The Christian world will have turned upside down,” Jenkins notes, as a solid majority of Christians will come from the south, while “Christianity worldwide is becoming steadily more charismatic” (113, 85).

With growth in numbers, new social expressions of Christianity will follow. And like the Dark Ages of Europe, the Church is stepping into the social void to provide stability: “All too often the Catholic Church occupies such a prominent role because it is literally the only institution that can hope to speak for ordinary people” (179). As Christians work to rebuild society, “we might even imagine a new wave of Christian states, in which political life is inextricably bound up with religious belief” (172). It is hard to predict the future, even as a very different trajectory seems inevitable, as the Christian faith, once again, proves itself adaptable by finding fertile soil for spiritual and social renewal. Reflecting on Christendom helps us to realize not only what we’ve lost, with the breakdown of the social reality of the Church in the West, but what could be, building upon the growth of Christian culture in the global south.

COMING UP: English Readings: Mass for the World Day of Migrants and Refugees

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Presider: Most. Rev. Samuel Aquila, Archbishop of Denver; Concelebrants: Most. Rev. Jorge Rodriguez, Auxiliary Bishop of Denver, Priests of the Archdiocese of Denver; Deacons: Rev. Mr. Roberto Cuevas and Rev. Mr. Lorenso Tong Ngo; Master of Ceremonies: Rev. Mr. Robert Rinne

Entrance procession: Adela and Eduardo Escobar (El Salvador), Ana and Javier Artica (Perú), Monserrath Vera-Bravo and Juan Carlos Villegas (Colombia), Sandra and Alan Lemus (Guatemala)

Lectors: First reading: Mr. Chou Cha, (Hmong community); Responsorial Psalm: Sister Julian Okeke (Igbo, African Community); Second reading: Ms. Sunhee Theresa Ju (Korean community)

Altar servers: Shaun Raphael and Sybil Raphael (Pakistan)

Prayers of the Faithful: Mr. Ramon Baro Sanchez (Spanish), Mr. Dzung Nguyen (Vietnamese), Mrs. Kateri Williams (English), Mrs. Victoria del Campo (Spanish), Mr. Joseph Opoku (Twi), Mr. Justin Ling (Burmese), Ms. Angela Chang (Korean), Mr. Saleem Raphael (Urdu)

Procession of the Gifts: Mama Marie Marguerite Abizi and Mrs. Anne Attouah Koffi (African Catholic Society), Mrs. Sophia Michael (Pakistani community), Mrs. Shen Meh (Burmese community), Mr. Pao Cha (Hmong community)

Music: Mr. Hoang Tran (pianist); Mr. Huu Mai and Mrs. Tram Mai (Cantors); Queen of Vietnamese Martyrs Parish; Antonio and Gisell Chavez (Hispanic Community); African Catholic Association

Testimonies: Sharal Raphael (Pakistan), René Campos Cerón (El Salvador)

 

EUCHARISTIC LITURGY

ENTRANCE SONG

(Queen of Vietnamese Martyrs’ Parish)

KYRIE ELEISON / GLORIA

(Hispanic community)

COLLECT

O God, who manifest your almighty power above all by pardoning and showing mercy, bestow, we pray, your grace abundantly upon us and make those hastening to attain your promises heirs to the treasures of heaven. Through our Lord Jesus Christ, your Son, who lives and reigns with you in the unity of the Holy Spirit,
one God, for ever and ever.
All: Amen.

LITURGY OF THE WORD

First Reading (Ez 18: 25-28) (Hmong)

Thus says the LORD:
You say, “The LORD’s way is not fair!”
Hear now, house of Israel:
Is it my way that is unfair, or rather, are not your ways unfair?
When someone virtuous turns away from virtue to commit iniquity, and dies,
it is because of the iniquity he committed that he must die.
But if he turns from the wickedness he has committed,
he does what is right and just,
he shall preserve his life;
since he has turned away from all the sins that he has committed,
he shall surely live, he shall not die.

The Word of the Lord,
R. Thanks be to God.

 

Responsorial Psalm (Ps 25:4-5, 8-9, 10, 14) (Igbo)

R. Remember your mercies, O Lord.

Your ways, O LORD, make known to me;
teach me your paths,
guide me in your truth and teach me,
for you are God my savior.
R. Remember your mercies, O Lord.

Remember that your compassion, O LORD,
and your love are from of old.
The sins of my youth and my frailties remember not;
in your kindness remember me,
because of your goodness, O LORD.
R. Remember your mercies, O Lord.

Good and upright is the LORD;
thus he shows sinners the way.
He guides the humble to justice,
and teaches the humble his way.
R. Remember your mercies, O Lord.

 

Second Reading (Phil 2:1-11) (Korean)

Brothers and sisters: If there is any encouragement in Christ, any solace in love,
any participation in the Spirit, any compassion and mercy, complete my joy by being of the same mind, with the same love, united in heart, thinking one thing.
Do nothing out of selfishness or out of vainglory; rather, humbly regard others as more important than yourselves, each looking out not for his own interests,
but also for those of others.

Have in you the same attitude that is also in Christ Jesus, Who, though he was in the form of God, did not regard equality with God something to be grasped.
Rather, he emptied himself, taking the form of a slave, coming in human likeness; and found human in appearance, he humbled himself, becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross.
Because of this, God greatly exalted him and bestowed on him the name which is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee should bend, of those in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.
The Word of the Lord,
R. Thanks be to God.

 

Alleluia (Hispanic community)
R. Alleluia, alleluia.
My sheep hear my voice, says the Lord;
I know them, and they follow me.
R. Alleluia, alleluia.

Gospel (Mt 21: 28-32)
Jesus said to the chief priests and elders of the people:
“What is your opinion?
A man had two sons.
He came to the first and said,
‘Son, go out and work in the vineyard today.’
He said in reply, ‘I will not, ‘
but afterwards changed his mind and went.
The man came to the other son and gave the same order.
He said in reply, ‘Yes, sir, ‘but did not go.
Which of the two did his father’s will?”
They answered, “The first.”
Jesus said to them, “Amen, I say to you,
tax collectors and prostitutes
are entering the kingdom of God before you.
When John came to you in the way of righteousness,
you did not believe him;
but tax collectors and prostitutes did.
Yet even when you saw that,
you did not later change your minds and believe him.”
The Gospel of the Lord,
R. Praise to you, Lord Jesus Christ.

Homily: Archbishop Samuel Aquila
PRAYERS OF THE FAITHFUL

Priest: With the confidence of children, and with the hope that God always listens, we pray especially today for our brother and sister migrants and refugees, saying: R/: Lord, hear our prayer.

1. (Spanish) For all bishops in our Church, that he may be encouraged by our prayers and support to lead God’s people in building a culture that respects the human dignity of all migrants and refugees, we pray to the Lord.

2. (Vietnamese) For the American people who generously open the doors and welcomed us, and for all nations in the world that have accepted migrant and refugees: may the Lord bless them with peace and prosperity, we pray to the Lord.

3. (English) For the President of the United States and all government leaders: that the Son of God, who became human, and a migrant and refugee himself, will help them understand the great dignity of human persons, and support legislation that better protects vulnerable populations in our midst, we pray to the Lord.

4. (Spanish) For the hundreds of thousands of our brothers and sisters TPS recipients and their families and children, who have been living and working in the United States legally for many years, in solidary with them, let’s ask the Lord to move the authorities to allow them to stay and continue making our country a better place, we pray to the Lord.

5. (Twi) For migrants, refugees, and all other strangers in our midst, that they may find strength and hope in our concern for justice, and feel the warmth of our love, we pray to the Lord.

6. (Burmese) For refugees in Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and elsewhere who are experiencing great suffering, that God might bring them to a place of peace and safety, we pray to the Lord.

7. (Korean) For peace in the world and the end of all wars that create the refugee crisis impelling people to look for safety for them and their families in other countries, we pray to the Lord.

8. (Urdu) For refugees forced to leave their countries because of religious persecution and the need of freedom to profess their Christian faith, we pray to the Lord,

Priest: God the Father, you sent us your Son to save us. May He, who with his family lived a persecuted life as a migrant and a refugee, accompany all our brothers and sisters who have no home and no country. May He be their security, strength, and food on the journey, working through the hands and hearts of His disciples. In His name, Father, we pray.
All: Amen.

PROCESSION WITH THE GIFTS:

A tes pie Oh Divin Roi (African Catholic Society)

PRAYER OVER THE GIFTS

Grant us, O merciful God, that this our offering may find acceptance with you and that through it the wellspring of all blessing may be laid open before us. Through Christ our Lord.
All: Amen

EUCHARISTIC PRAYER II

V. The Lord be with you.
R. And with your spirit.
V. Lift up your hearts.
R. We lift them up to the Lord.
V. Let us give thanks to the Lord our God.
R. It is right and just.

It is truly right and just, our duty and our salvation,
always and everywhere to give you thanks,
Lord, holy Father, almighty and eternal God,
through Christ our Lord.
For through his Paschal Mystery,
he accomplished the marvelous deed,
by which he has freed us from the yoke of sin and death,
summoning us to the glory of being now called
a chosen race, a royal priesthood,
a holy nation, a people for your own possession,
to proclaim everywhere your mighty works,
for you have called us out of darkness
into your own wonderful light.
And so, with Angels and Archangels,
with Thrones and Dominions,
and with all the hosts and Powers of heaven,
we sing the hymn of your glory,
as without end we acclaim:

SANCTUS (Hispanic community)

The Priest, with hands extended, says:
You are indeed Holy, O Lord,
the fount of all holiness.
Make holy, therefore, these gifts, we pray,
by sending down your Spirit upon them like the dewfall,
so that they may become for us
the Body and + Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ.

At the time he was betrayed
and entered willingly into his Passion,
he took bread and, giving thanks, broke it,
and gave it to his disciples, saying:

TAKE THIS, ALL OF YOU, AND EAT OF IT,
FOR THIS IS MY BODY,
WHICH WILL BE GIVEN UP FOR YOU.

In a similar way, when supper was ended,
he took the chalice
and, once more giving thanks,
he gave it to his disciples, saying:

TAKE THIS, ALL OF YOU, AND DRINK FROM IT,

FOR THIS IS THE CHALICE OF MY BLOOD,
THE BLOOD OF THE NEW AND ETERNAL COVENANT,
WHICH WILL BE POURED OUT FOR YOU AND FOR MANY
FOR THE FORGIVENESS OF SINS.
DO THIS IN MEMORY OF ME.

The mystery of faith.

Choir: (Hispanic community)

All: We proclaim your Death, O Lord,
and profess your Resurrection
until you come again.

Therefore, as we celebrate
the memorial of his Death and Resurrection,
we offer you, Lord,
the Bread of life and the Chalice of salvation,
giving thanks that you have held us worthy
to be in your presence and minister to you.

Humbly we pray
that, partaking of the Body and Blood of Christ,
we may be gathered into one by the Holy Spirit.

Remember, Lord, your Church,
spread throughout the world,
and bring her to the fullness of charity,
together with Francis our Pope
and Samuel, our Archbishop, with my your unworthy servant, and all the clergy.

Remember also our brothers and sisters
who have fallen asleep in the hope of the resurrection,
and all who have died in your mercy:
welcome them into the light of your face.

Have mercy on us all, we pray,
that with the Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of God,
with blessed Joseph, her Spouse
with the blessed Apostles,
and all the Saints who have pleased you throughout the ages,
we may merit to be coheirs to eternal life,
and may praise and glorify you
through your Son, Jesus Christ.

Through him, and with him, and in him,
O God, almighty Father,
in the unity of the Holy Spirit,
all glory and honor is yours,
for ever and ever.
All: Amen.

 

COMMUNION RITE

(Each one will pray the Our Father in his or her own language)

Spiritual communion (for those following the livestream Mass)
My Jesus, I believe that You are present in the Most Holy Sacrament. I love You above all things, and I desire to receive You into my soul. Since I cannot at this moment receive You sacramentally, come at least spiritually into my heart. I embrace You as if You were already there and unite myself wholly to You.
Never permit me to be separated from You.
Amen.

COMMUNION SONG

(Queen of Vietnamese Martyrs’ Parish)

PRAYER AFTER COMMUNION

May this heavenly mystery, O Lord, restore us in mind and body, that we may be coheirs in glory with Christ, to whose suffering we are united whenever we proclaim his Death. Who lives and reigns for ever and ever.
All: Amen.

FINAL SONG:

Nyame Kokroko (in Twi, African Catholic Society)

TESTIMONIES

Sharal Raphael (Pakistan) and René Campos Cerón (El Salvador)

René Campos Cerón’s Testimony

(Translated from Spanish)

I am a young Salvadoran full of illusions and hopes. My family and I have been, for many years, victims of the Salvadoran gangs. In 2008 when I was 15 years old, my parents were threatened by the gangs, asking for a lot of money. (protection income).

Not being able to pay them, they began to threaten us with death, stalking us in the house at night. We had to flee to different parts of the country. We did this for five years, but they always found us.

Seeing that our lives were in greater danger every day, my father decided to come to the United States and we stayed in hiding with some relatives in El Salvador for a year. When my father arrived here, he got a headache and after 8 days he had to undergo emergency surgery.

In March 2014, my mother and I took to the road to reach the United States. My two younger brothers, 16 and 19 years old, and the oldest, 23 stayed in El Salvador. The youngest stayed with my paternal grandmother and the other two at the university.

When my mother and I arrived at the United States border, ICE grabbed us and we ended up in jail, staying there for several days. Then, they released my mother, but they took me to another jail for another month. Thank God they gave us shelter for 3 years.

In 2015 my younger brother, who was already 17 years old at the time, was killed by the gangs. They kidnapped him and as my grandmother insistently was looking for him, they threatened her also, that if she kept looking for him, they would kill her too.

With this reality at hand my other two brothers were also in danger, they asked the university for help so that they could give them scholarships to go study in Argentina. Their status is that of refugees until they finish their studies.

We are all very committed to the church. I, with the group of young adults from “Queen of Peace” and my parents as Coordinators of the Christian Family Movement, from whom we have received a lot of material and spiritual help. They have been able to help many couples who are going through difficult times in their marriage. I have helped many young people, trying to make them see that life is very beautiful despite everything that we are going through. I try to teach them that we must commit ourselves in our church, since we are the present in our church and not the future.

Pope Francis’s Message for the World Day of Migrants and Refugees 2020

Father, you entrusted to Saint Joseph what you held most precious: the child Jesus and his Mother, in order to protect them from the dangers and threats of the wicked.
Grant that we may experience his protection and help. May he, who shared in the sufferings of those who flee from the hatred of the powerful, console and protect all our brothers and sisters driven by war, poverty and necessity to leave their homes and their lands to set out as refugees for safer places.

Help them, through the intercession of Saint Joseph, to find the strength to persevere, give them comfort in sorrows and courage amid their trials.
Grant to those who welcome them some of the tender love of this just and wise father, who loved Jesus as a true son and sustained Mary at every step of the way.

May he, who earned his bread by the work of his hands, watch over those who have seen everything in life taken away and obtain for them the dignity of a job and the serenity of a home.

We ask this through Jesus Christ, your Son, whom Saint Joseph saved by fleeing to Egypt, and trusting in the intercession of the Virgin Mary, whom he loved as a faithful husband in accordance with your will. Amen.